Vol 60, No 4 (2015)

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The study of the antiviral activity of polyelectrolytes with respect to the influenza virus

Kontarov N.A., Ermakova A.A., Grebionkina N.S., Yuminova N.V., Zverev V.V.


It is well known that polyelectrolytes (PE) have a damaging effect on the secondary structure of the proteins and enzymes. It is also known that some PEs exert an immunostimulating action on T- and B-lymphocytes. However, currently, almost nothing is known about the impact of the PE of the viral proteins and viral envelope. Therefore, a detailed study of the mechanisms of the antiviral action of various polyelectrolytes would create the scientific-practical base for the construction of the antiviral drugs on the polyelectrolyte basis. In these works, for the first time the influence of PE polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) with varying degrees of polymerization and polyallylamin (PAA) and with molecular mass 6 and 8 kDa on the infectivity of different strains of the influenza virus was studied. It was shown that the expressed antiviral action PSS with degree of polymerization 8 (ETS-8) and PAA (6 kDa) against the influenza viruses was characterized by a significant reduction in the infectious titer of the virus. It was determined that the span of the nontoxic concentrations for the ETS-8 was 1-40 mM; for PAA (6 kDa), 1-40 μM, with IC50 = 3.8 ± 0.19 mm and 1.8 ± 0.09 μM, respectively. For the first time the impact of the PE on the structural-functional state of the viral membrane was assessed on the basis of monomolecular monolayers used as models of cell membranes.
Problems of Virology. 2015;60(4):5-9
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Efficacy of polyprenyl phosphates in the experimental genital herpes model

Narovlyansky A.N., Ivanova А.M., Shevlyagina N.V., Didenko L.V., Borovaya Т.G., Izmest’eva А.V., Sanin А.V., Pronin А.V., Ershov F.I.


An experimental model of the primary genital herpes (herpes simplex type 2, HSV-2) in the female guinea pigs was suggested to study the infectious process activity of polyprenyl phosphates (PPP) and PPP+acyclovir (AC) complex treatment. The morphofunctional features of the guinea pig ovaries were studied in the control and experimental groups (the latter were inoculated with PPP and/or AC as a primary infection treatment) at the stage of the recurrent genital herpes aggravation. It was shown that in the case of combined PPP +AC use significant changes in the disease symptoms were observed, as well as a decrease in the infectious process activity and duration, and positive remote effect on the ovarian morphophysiology.
Problems of Virology. 2015;60(4):9-13
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Molecular genetic characteristics of the virus isolated from patients with human acute encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

Barinsky I.F., Grebennikova T.V., Alkhovsky S.V., Kochergin-Nikitsky K.S., Sergeyev O.V., Gribencha S.V., Raev S.A.


The study of the antigenic and molecular genetic structure of human acute encephalomyelitis virus (HAEV) showed a high similarity of the HAEV N gene with the homologous gene of the fixed rabies virus strain. The results of the nucleotide sequence analysis indicate that HAEV belongs to the lyssavirus genotype 1. The N gene sequence is the closest to those of the ERA-CB20-M and RV-97 strains of the rabies virus. The need for further research into the role of the human acute encephalomyelitis virus in human pathology stems from past surveys that revealed the presence of the VNAs against this virus in 6 per cent of the blood received from donors in the USA and in each third among the patients with multiple sclerosis in the former USSR.
Problems of Virology. 2015;60(4):14-18
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Genetic stability of the HA, NA, and NS genes of the recombinant vector virus FluNS1-124-Omp16 (H5N1) expressing the brucellar gene

Sadikaliyeva S.O., Sultankulova K.T., Shorayeva K.A., Strochkov V.M., Chervyakova O.V., Zaitsev V.L., Tabynov K.K., Sandybayev N.T., Sansyzbay A.R., Egorov A.Y.


The recombinant strain Flu-NS1-124-Omp16 (H5N1) of the influenza virus expressing the brucellar Omp16 gene was constructed on the basis of the technology of reverse genetics for the purpose of developing vector antibrucellosis vaccine. The obtained recombinant strain is a genetically stable construction. This stability is confirmed by the comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the HA, NA, and NS genes of the recombinant vector virus Flu-NS1-124-Omp16 (H5N1) expressing the Omp16 gene of the Brucella abortus (genBank: AAA59360.1). The comparative analysis showed that the nucleotide sequence of the Ns gene of the first and the fifth passage level of the Flu-NS1-124-Omp16 (H5N1) virus corresponded for 100% to the initial part of 12ААS2TC_124Omp16g containing the chimera NS1-124-Omp16 in the composition of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) plasmids pHW2000. Total identity with HA and NA genes of the strain А/AstanaRG/6:2/2009 (H5N1) was shown by the comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of HA and NA genes of the first and the fifth passage level of the recombinant strain Flu-NS1-124-Omp16 (H5N1). The recombinant vector virus Flu-NS1-124-Omp16 (H5N1) expressing the brucella Omp16 gene maintains the genetic stability during 5 passages in 10-day developing chicken embryos.
Problems of Virology. 2015;60(4):18-23
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Clinical and laboratory presentation of the influenza А (H1N1pdm 2009) in children and adults during the period of 2009-2013 in St. Petersburg

Osidak L.V., Gonchar V.V., Voloshuk L.V., Golovacheva E.G., Сulikova N.A., Dondurey E.A., Afanasjeva O.I., Suhovezkaia V.F., Milkint K.K., Obraztsova E.V., Mushkatina A.L., Konovalova N.I., Pisareva М.М., Goncharova Е.S., Galkina S.N., Drinevsky V.P., Go A.


Comparative analysis of the clinical laboratory data from 419 children and 468 adults hospitalized during the pandemic of A (H1N1pdm 2009) and pre- and post-pandemic periods (2010-2013) showed that the clinical presentation of the pandemic influenza in patients of all ages is generally typical for influenza, and its character is determined by the degree of involvement of lungs in the process. Besides, the incidence of pneumonia in adults is statistically significantly higher than in children. During all compared periods hyperthermia (≥39°C), hemorrhagic and dyspeptic syndrome were observed. Some differences in the main clinical manifestations of pneumonia in recovered patients and patients who died of the severe pandemic influenza were observed. The regularities of the cytokine reactions depending on the intensity of intoxication and occurrence of complications were determined in patients of all ages. Medical efficacy of inclusion of antiviral chemotherapeutic agents into complex influenza treatment was proved.
Problems of Virology. 2015;60(4):23-28
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Molecular epidemiological analysis of HIV-1 in Kazakhstan in 2009-2013

Lapovok I.A., Laga V.Y., Kazennova E.V., Vasilyev A.V., Dzissyuk N.V., Utegenova A.K., Abishev A.T., Tukeev M.S., Bobkova M.R.


In this study pol gene analysis of 205 HIV-1 samples collected in Kazakhstan in 2009 and 2012-2013 was carried out. CRF02_AG variant is dominating in almaty and actively circulates in East Kazakhstan Province. IDU-A variant is dominating in the rest of Kazakhstan. The data on low prevalence (3%) of HIV drug resistance mutations in native patients were obtained.
Problems of Virology. 2015;60(4):29-37
pages 29-37 views

Collective immunity against poliomyelitis among the population of several regions of Russia

Seybil V.B., Malyshkina L.P., Ageeva O.T., Kosolapova E.I., Mnozhina E.G., Groshenkova E.V., Krivtsov N.V., Gurianova N.I., Daltsaeva M.K., Fomina N.S.


The goal of this work was to estimate the collective immunity against poliomyelitis among the population of 8 regions and republics of russia. The rates of the collective immunity against poliomyelitis allow the polio vaccination quality to be estimated and the population protection rate to be simultaneously demonstrated. a total of 8 regions (2138 people) were tested. The antibodies to the polioviruses of 1-3 types were determined against the vaccine sabin strains in the neutralization test in the RD cell line. As a result, we found that vaccination against poliomyelitis in all observed regions was maintained at the required high level. Thus, the number of people with antibodies to the polio in most regions and age groups approximates or reaches 100%, while GMT is also high. This work demonstrated the necessity of the continuation of vaccination against poliomyelitis and control over collective immunity.
Problems of Virology. 2015;60(4):37-40
pages 37-40 views

A preclinical trial of the reassortant influenza virus vaccinе strain A/17/Quail/Hong Kong/97/84 (H9N2)

Desheva Y.A., Smolonogina T.A., Rudenko L.G.


In this work, we examined the reassortant influenza virus strain A/17/Quail/Hong Kong/97/84 (H9N2) prepared at the Virology Department, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The A/Leningrad/134/17 (H2N2)-based vaccine candidate contained hemagglutinin and the neuraminidase from the nonpathogenic avian influenza A virus A(H9N2) of the G1 antigenic lineage. The vaccine candidate showed the ts-properties and cold adaptation. When administered intranasally to mice, the vaccine strain A(H9N2) was attenuated. It did not multiply in the lungs but was reproduced well in the nasal cavity, causing the production of the post-vaccination antibody. The A/17/Quail/Hong Kong/97/84(H9N2) virus was immunogenic when administered to mice as a LAI V intranasally or as a IIV intramuscularly. Intranasal A(H9N2) LAIV stimulated ocal production of the antibodies, which resulted in reduction in lung titers of the challenge virus G9.
Problems of Virology. 2015;60(4):40-44
pages 40-44 views

Testing of apathogenic influenza virus H5N3 as a poultry live vaccine

Boravleva E.Y., Chvala I.A., Lomakina N.F., Repin P.I., Mudrak N.S., Rudenko L.G., Gambaryan A.S., Drygin V.V.


Four H5N2 experimental vaccine strains and the apathogenic wild duck H5N3 influenza virus A/duck/ Moscow/4182/2010 (dk/4182) were tested as a live poultry vaccine. Experimental strains had the hemagglutinin of the A/Vietnam/1203/04 strain lacking the polybasic HA cleavage site or the hemagglutinin from attenuated virus (Ku/at) that was derived from the highly pathogenic influenza virus A/chicken/Kurgan/3/2005 (H5N1). The hemagglutinin of the Ku-at has the amino acid substitutions Asp54/Asn and Lys222/Thr in HA1 and Val48/Ile and Lys131/Thr in HA2, while maintaining the polybasic HA cleavage site at an invariable level. The other genes of these experimental strains were from the H2N2 cold-adapted master strain A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (VN-Len and Ku-Len) or from the apathogenic H6N2 virus A/gull/Moscow/3100/2006 (VN-Gull and Ku-Gull). A single immunization of mice with all tested strains elicited a high level of serum antibodies and provided complete protection against the challenge with the lethal dose of A/chicken/Kurgan/3/05. The pathogenicity indexes of the Ku-at and the other strains for chicken were virtually zero, whereas the index of the parent H5N1 virus A/chicken/Kurgan/3/2005 was 2.98. Intravenous, intranasal, and aerosol routes of vaccination were compared. It was shown that the strain dk/4182 was totally apathogenic for one-day-old chicken and provided complete protection against the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus.
Problems of Virology. 2015;60(4):44-49
pages 44-49 views

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