Vol 62, No 2 (2017)


Vaccines against avian influenza in poultry

Kostina L.V., Zaberezhnyy A.D., Grebennikova T.V., Antipova N.V., Aliper T.I., Nepoklonov E.A.


The review presents the latest data about the types of vaccines against avian influenza that are used in current medical practice or are under development. Inactivated whole virion vaccines, live vector vaccines, as well as experimental vaccines developed using genetic engineering techniques (e.g. subunit vaccines, VLP vaccines, DNA vaccines) were considered. The efficiency of influenza reverse genetic technology for the development of prototype vaccine strains was noted.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(2):53-60
pages 53-60 views

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: the disease, caused by the novel phlebovirus

Sizikova T.E., Lebedev V.N., Pantukhov V.B., Borisevich S.V.


Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a new virus (SFTS virus) reported to be endemic to central and northeastern parts of China. SFTS virus, which is classified into the genus Phlebovirus (the Bunyaviridae family), is suspected to be a tick-borne virus owing to evidence in two species of ticks: Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus microplus. SFTS virus is detected among many species of domestic animals in China. The clinical symptoms of SFTS include fever, thrombocytopenia, leucocytopenia, gastrointestinal symptoms, neural symptoms, bleeding tendency. The fatality rate of SFTS is 6-30%. Person-to-person transmission of SFTS virus is possible through blood contact. Clinical and epidemiological studies of SFTS, the cases of SFTS outside China, person-to-person transmission of SFTS virus, evolutionary and molecular analysis of the emergent SFTS virus, and risk assessment of human infection with a novel phlebovirus are considered in this review.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(2):60-65
pages 60-65 views


Paramyxoviruses activation by host proteases in cultures of normal and cancer cells

Zhirnov O.P.


Multiplication of paramyxovirus Sendai and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was studied in cultures of normal and tumor cells. Production of noninfectious virus with uncleaved F0 was observed in canine kidney cell line MDCK (line H) and its derivatives carrying tetracycline-regulated expression of transmembrane protease HAT or TMPRSS2 with trypsin-like cleavage specificity. Under tetracycline induction, a cleavage F0 (65 kD)>F1 (50 kD)+F2(15 kD) and production of infectious virus were observed in these cell cultures. Under tetracycline induction, the additional subunit 38K (m.w. 38 kDa) of the F protein was detected both in infected MDCK-HAT cells and in newly synthesized Sendai virus in addition to F0, F1 and F2, indicating thereby a second HAT-sensitive proteolytic site in the F0 molecule. Highly infectious virus containing cleaved F1+F2 was produced in cultures of cancer cells Caco-2 and H1299. Virus Sendai synthesized in H1299 cells contained 38 K subunit indicating a cleavage of the F0 at a second site by H1299 host cell proteases. Levels of cleaved F1+F2 and infectious virions were higher at the late stage of infection in cancer cells, suggesting thus the induction of virus-activating proteases in Caco-2 and H1299 cells under infection with paramyxoviruses. NDV virus was found to induce more rapid death of cancer cells Caco-2 than Sendai virus. Cooperatively, the obtained data show that cancer cells in distinction to nonmalignant cells can synthesize protease(s) activating infectivity of paramyxoviruses. Thus, they are more vulnerable to paramyxovirus infection than normal cells.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(2):65-72
pages 65-72 views

Immunogenicity and safety of the adult tbe vaccine «tick-e-vac»

Vorovitch M.F., Maikova G.B., Chernokhaeva L.L., Romanenko V.V., Ankudinova A.V., Khapchaev Y.K., Karganova G.G., Ishmukhametov A.A., Drozdov S.G.


About 3,000 cases of TBE are registered annually in the Russian Federation. Vaccination is the main way to prevent the tick-borne encephalitis disease. Comparative study of the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new vaccine «Tick-E-Vac» was held. Volunteers aged from 16 years old were twice immunized with the vaccines «Tick-E-Vac» or «Encevir» derived from strains of Far East subtype of TBE virus, according to standard and emergency schemes. The clinical study was randomized, comparative, blind, and controlled. The frequency, intensity, time of occurrence, and duration of local and general reactions had been recorded. The titers of antiviral antibodies in ELISA had been determined to assess the immunological efficacy of vaccination. According to the results of the clinical study, the severity of local and general reactions in initial seronegative recipients was weak or moderate. The symptoms were usually manifested within 1-2 days after injection and persisted for not more than 4 days, after which time the symptoms disappeared. There was no statistically significant difference in the reactogenicity of the vaccines after the first and after the second injection. The reactogenicity also did not depend on the gender of recipients. After the first immunization, the level of seroprotection was not less than 43%; the average geometric titer of antibodies (GTA), not less than 1:200. After the second injection, the level of seroprotection reached 90-100%; GTA, not less than 1:500. The data on the reactogenicity and immunogenicity to the original seropositive recipients is not significantly different from the data for the initial seronegative recipients. The data indicate weak reactogenicity of the vaccines «Tick-E-Vac» and «Encevir». Double vaccination with an interval of 14 or 30 days leads to the formation of expressed immune response. Thus, differences in the level of seroprotection and in antiviral titers in the cases of the standard and emergency vaccination schedules are not statistically significant. The correlation between the development in recipients of local and general symptoms and the immunological efficacy of the vaccines has not been identified.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(2):73-80
pages 73-80 views

Genetic diversity of viruses of Chenuda virus species (Orbivirus, Reoviridae) circulating in Central Asia

Eremyan A.A., Lvov D.K., Shchetinin A.M., Deryabin P.G., Aristova V.A., Gitelman A.K., Botikov A.G., Alkhovsky S.V.


Chenuda virus (CNUV) (Orbivirus, Reoviridae) is the only known orbivirus associated with argas (Argasidae) ticks. Scientific study of this group is necessary for understanding of Orbivirus genus evolution patterns. We conducted a comparative analysis of full genomes of five different viruses of Chenuda virus species, including Baku virus strains (BAKV) circulating in a rather limited area in the Central Asia and Transcaucasia. It was shown that VP4(OC1) and VP6(Hel) proteins variability greatly exceeds the variability of other proteins. The divergence between CNUV and BAKV in this proteins is about 50%. Even in closely related strains isolated from the same geographical region, the conservative genes of which are 90-95% identical, the VP4(OC1) and VP6(Hel) divergence reaches values that would usually be indicative of different serotypes (74.1-82.2%).
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(2):81-86
pages 81-86 views

Multiplex immunoassay for detection of immunoglobulin G to herpes simplex virus types 1, 2 and cytomegalovirus based on PHOSPHAN technology

Nikitina A.V., Pomelova V.G., Osin N.S., Mardanly S.G.


We have developed a multiplex immunoassay test (immunochip) based on PHOSPHAN technology for the detection of immunoglobulin G to herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1, 2 and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The immunochip consists of HSV type specific gG1 (HSV-1) and gG2 (HSV-2) recombinant antigens, the lysate antigen for detection of total IgG to both HSV types (HSV 1/2), and CMV specific chimeric recombinant antigen containing the immunodominant sequences of pp150, gB, pp28 and pp52 proteins. The sensitivity and specificity of simultaneous IgGs detection with recombinant proteins were comparable to the commercial ELISA kits regardless of the kind of investigated serum specimens (patient sera, standard serum panels). The lysate HSV antigen was as sensitive but significantly less specific, so that it could not be recommended for use as a component of the multiplex test. These results can be used as a basis for creating commercial multiplex tests intended for high-productive screening of HSV, CMV and other TORCH-infections in a clinical laboratory.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(2):87-90
pages 87-90 views

Detection and molecular characterization of reassortant DS-1-like G1P [8] strains of rotavirus A

Morozova O.V., Sashina T.A., Novikova N.A.


Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the main cause of viral gastroenteritis in children worldwide. In this study we provide the molecular characteristics of reassortant DS-1-like G1P[8] RVA strains detected in Russia for the first time. Previously, such reassortant strains were detected in Japan and Thailand. The G1P[8] RVAs with DS-1-like short electropherotype RNA-PAGE were isolated from children hospitalised with an acute gastroenteritis during the 2013-2014 period. The DS-1-like G1P[8] strains accounted for 2.6% of all RVA strains detected continuously throughout the season. A phylogenetic analysis was made on the basis of the established nucleotide sequences of genes VP7, VP8* (VP4), VP6 and NSP4. The Nizhny Novgorod strains belong to G1-I and G1-II alleles of VP7 gene and to P[8]-3 allele of VP4. According to their VP6 sequences, two Russian samples clustered with the reassortant strains isolated in Japan, Thailand and Australia and two other strains were phylogenetically close to the typical G2P[4] DS-1-like RVA. Nucleotide sequences of G1P[8] strains that belong to NSP4 gene form a separate cluster from G3P[8] DS-1-like rotaviruses detected in Thailand and Australia. The RVA alleles included in Rotarix and RotaTeq vaccine strains were clustered separately from the studied reassortant RVAs. On the grounds of phylogenetic analysis we assume a polyphyletic origin of reassortants between Wa- and DS-1-like strains. Mutation rates evaluated by Bayesian inference in clusters with reassortant RVA strains were 1.004Е-3 (VP7), 1.227E-3 (VP4), 3.909E-4 (VP6), and 4.014Е-4 (NSP4). Analysis of tMRCA showed relatively contemporary origin of alleles DS-1-like G1P[8] rotaviruses: VP7 - 1998 (G1-I) and 1981 (G1-II), VP4 - 1998, VP6 - 1994, NSP4 - 1979.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(2):91-96
pages 91-96 views


Vasily A. Lashkevich (on the occasion of his 90th birthday)



Problems of Virology. 2017;62(2):97-97
pages 97-97 views

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