Vol 61, No 4 (2016)


Asymmetric structure of the influenza A virus and novel function of the matrix protein M1

Zhirnov O.P.


Influenza virus is an enveloped virus. It comprises two major modules: external lipoprotein envelope and internal ribonucleoprotein (RNP) containing the genomic negative-strand RNA. Lipoprotein envelope contains four vital proteins: hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), transmembrane ionic channel M2, and minor amounts of nuclear export protein NEP. RNP contains RNA and four polypeptides: major nucleocapsid protein NP and three polymerase subunits PB1, PB2, PA. Both modules are linked with each other by matrix M1 maintaining the virus integrity. According to the structural function, NP and M1 are predominant in virus particle in the amounts of 1000 and 3000 molecules, respectively. In addition to the structural function, M1 plays a role in regulation of intracellular and nuclear migration of viral RNP and virus assembly, referred as budding process, at the plasma membrane in infected cells. The bipolar structure of the influenza virus characterized by asymmetric location of RNP and nonregular distribution of M1 and M2 inside the virion is reviewed. The role of M1 in maintaining the asymmetric structure of the virus particle and regulation of RNP transport inside virus particle is considered. First experimental data confirming (i) intravirion RNP transport and its outside exit directed by the M1 and (ii) the importance of this process in virus uncoating and initiation of infection in target cell are discussed. A novel class of antiviral agents activating ATP-ase of the early endosome compartment in the target cell is discussed.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(4):149-154
pages 149-154 views

Human rotavirus infection. Strategies for the vaccinal prevention

Alekseev K.P., Kalnov S.L., Grebennikova T.V., Aliper T.I.


Rotavirus was first isolated in 1973 in Australia from children with diarrhea. Hundreds of thousands of children die annually in developing countries from this virus with the mortality peaks in the most impoverished among them. According to wHo, rotavirus infection claims about 440 thousands children lives each year, being third in the mortality rate after pneumonia and malaria. Rotavirus is widely spread throughout the world and by the age of five years almost every child encountered this pathogen at least once. Rotavirus has a high genetic and antigenic diversity. The most important for humans is the group A rotavirus, and the most common by far genotypes are G1P [8], G2P [4], G3P [8], G4P [8], G9P [8], and to a lesser extent G12P [8]. There are three gene constellations described in rotavirus designated Wa, Ds-1, and Au-1. It is believed that they originated from rotaviruses of pigs, cattle, dogs, and cats, respectively. Cases of rotavirus interspecies transmission from animal to humans were reported. The first vaccines against rotavirus infection were based on naturally attenuated virus of the animal origin. Their efficiency, especially in developing countries, was inadequate, but today China and India use vaccines based on animal rotaviruses. Using the method of gene reassortation with the cattle rotavirus WC3 as a backbone, pentavalent vaccine against most common human rotavirus serotypes was developed and now successfully used as RotaTeq. The ability of rotavirus to protect against heterologous isolates was taken into account in the development of other vaccine, Rotarix, created on the basis of rotavirus genotype G1P1A [8]. The efficacy of these vaccines in developing countries is significantly reduced (51%), the cost of a dose is high, and so the search for more effective, safe, and inexpensive vaccines against rotavirus continues around the world.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(4):154-159
pages 154-159 views


Virological, epidemiological, clinic, and molecular genetic features of the influenza epidemic in 2015-2016: prevailing of the influenza A(H1N1)09 pdm virus in Russia and countries of the Northern hemisphere

Lvov D.K., Burtseva E.I., Kolobukhina L.V., Fedyakina I.T., Kirillova E.S., Trushakova S.V., Feodoritova E.L., Belyaev A.L., Merkulova L.N., Krasnoslobodtsev K.G., Mukasheva E.A., Garina E.O., Oskerko T.A., Aristova V.A., Vartanian R.V., Kisteneva L.B., Deryabin P.G., Prilipov A.G., Alkhovsky S.V., Kruzhkova I.S., Bazarova M.V., Deviatkin A.V.


This work describes the specific features of the influenza virus circulating in the period from October 2015 to March 2016 in 10 cities of Russia, the basic laboratories of CEEI at the D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology “Federal Research Centre of Epidemilogy and Microbiology named after the honorary academician N.F. Gamaleya” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The increase in the morbidity caused by influenza viruses was detected in January-February 2016. The duration of the morbidity peak was 4-5 weeks. The most vulnerable group included children at the age from 3 to 6; a high rate of hospitalization was also detected among people at the age of 15-64 (65%). In clinic symptoms there were middle and severe forms with high frequency of hospitalization as compared with the season of 2009-2010, but much higher in comparison with the season of 2014-2015. Some of the hospitalized patients had virus pneumonias, half of which were bilateral. Among these patients, 10% were children; 30%, adults. The mortality in the intensive care unit of the hospital was 46%. Almost all lethal cases were among unvaccinated patients in the case of late hospitalization and without early antiviral therapy. The predominance of the influenza A(H1N1)09pdm virus both in the Russian Federation and the major part of the countries in the Northern hemisphere was noted. The results of the study of the antigenic properties of influenza strains of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus did not reveal any differences with respect to the vaccine virus. The sequencing data showed the amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin (receptor binding and Sa sites) and in genes encoding internal proteins (PA, NP, M1, NS1). Strains were sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir and maintained resistance to rimantadine. The participation of non-influenza ARI viruses was comparable to that in preliminary epidemic seasons.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(4):159-166
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Amino acid polymorphism at residue 222 of the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 from patients 166 with lethal virus pneumonia in 2012-2014

Krasnoslobodtsev K.G., Lvov D.K., Alkhovsky S.V., Burtseva E.I., Fedyakina I.T., Kolobukhina L.V., Kirillova E.S., Trushakova S.V., Oskerko T.A., Shchelkanov M.Y., Deryabin P.G.


Survey data from autopsy specimens from patients who died from pneumonia caused by the influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 in 2012-2014 and mutant forms of influenza virus in these patients (position 222 in the receptor-binding region of hemagglutinin) were presented. In total, according to aggregate data, obtained with three different methods (sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS), virus isolation) mutant viruses were detected in 17 (41%) from 41 patients. The proportion of the mutant forms in viral populations ranged from 1% to 69.2%. The most frequent mixture was the wild type (D222) and mutant (D222G), with proportion of mutant type ranged from 3.3% to 69.2% in the viral population. Mutation D222N (from 1.1% to 5.5%) was found rarely. Composition of the viral population from one patient is extremely heterogeneous: in left lung there was only wild type D222, meantime in right lung - mixture of mutant forms 222D/N/G (65.4/32.5/1.1%), in trachea - mixture 222D/G/Y/A (61.8/35.6/1.2/1.4%, respectively), and in bronchi compound of 222D/G/N/A (64.3/33.7/1/1%, respectively) were detected. The obtained data indicate that the process of adaptation of the virus in the lower respiratory tract is coupled with the appearance of different virus variants with mutations in the receptor-binding region. Mutant forms of the virus are observed in the lower respiratory tract of the majority of patients with lethal viral pneumonia. However, if they are a minor part of the population, they cannot be detected by the method of conventional sequencing. They can be identified using the NGS methods.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(4):166-171
pages 166-171 views

Influence of the immunomodulatory drug stimforte on the humoral immune response in the experimental herpes virus infection

Maldov D.G., Andronova V.L., Balakina A.A., Ilyichev A.V., Galegov G.A.


In the study of the immunostimulation preparation Stimforte activity using the model of the experimental herpes virus infection BALB/c, mice has shown that sera from mice treated with the drug on the 4th and 7th day after infection possessed a 3 times greater capability of specifically binding to the culture of HSV-1 (on cells Vero) according to dot blot analysis, as compared with intact infected mice sera obtained at the same time. It was also shown that these sera had a 5 times higher index of neutralization. On the basis of Western blots, it was detected that antibodies from sera of mice treated with Stimforte contacted the glycoproteins gB and gC of HSV-1 significantly better. Thus, Stimforte stimulates one of the strongest modulatory effects on the immune memory and is a promising drug for the treatment of chronic viral diseases.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(4):172-175
pages 172-175 views

Markers of hepatitis E among the population of the Greater Sochi and in monkeys of the Adler primate center

Korzaia L.I., Keburia V.V., Dogadov D.I., Lapin B.A., Kyuregyan K.K., Mikhailov M.I.


Serum from humans (n = 646) and monkeys (n = 1867) collected during the period 1999-2013 was tested by enzyme immunoassay. Anti-HEV IgG was detected significantly more frequently (P ≥ 0.001) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) - 45.1 ± 1.6% (n = 1001) than in cynomolgus macaques (M. fascicularis) 16.2 ± 1.8% (n = 426). Single seropositive individuals were found among M. nemestrina - 4.0±2.8% (n = 50). Anti-HEV was not detected in the sera of green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) - n = 162, Papio hamadryas (n = 124), and Papio anubis - n = 104. The presence of the anti-HEV IgM indicating the cases of fresh infection in Macaca mulatta - 2.1 ± 0.5% (n = 717) and M. fascicularis - 3.5 ± 1.3% (n = 266) is of great significance. The overall frequency of detection of the anti-HEV IgG among the staff of the Adler Primate Center - 6.8 ± 2.3% (n = 118) was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.001) than among the population of the Greater Sochi - 15.9% ± 1.6 (n = 528). It is important that only in patients of medical institutions (clinic, hospital, cancer center), anti-HEV IgM were detected (2.7-11.8%) along with anti-HEV IgG (15-23.5%), thereby indicating the presence of acute cases of HEV infection among this population. HEV RNA was not detected in the serum of anti-HEV IgM-positive people and monkeys. Seroepidemiological data do not confirm the assumption on the ability of seropositive monkeys of Macaca genus to be a natural reservoir of HEV infection for humans.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(4):176-180
pages 176-180 views

Isolation and complete genome sequencing of rabies virus strain isolated from a brown bear (Ursus arctos) that attacked a human in Primorsky krai (November, 2014)

Shchelkanov M.Y., Deviatkin A.A., Ananiev V.Y., Frolov E.V., Dombrovskaya I.E., Dedkov V.G., Ardashev A.V., Kolomeets S.A., Korotkova I.P., Lyubchenko E.N., Bandeev V.V., Prosyannikova M.N., Galkina I.V., Ivanushko E.S., Emelyanova N.P., Baranov N.I., Ulyanova S.A., Aramilev S.V., Fomenko P.V., Surovy A.L., Poroshin N.A., Sokol N.N., Maslov D.V., Makhinya E.E., Shipulin G.A.


An attack of a brown bear (Ursus arctos) on human was detected in November, 2014 in the Barabash village (Khasan region of the Primorski krai) located in close proximity to the national park Land of the Leopard. The bear was shot. The deviant behavior of the bear indicated the possibility of rabies. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of laboratory methods. The strain RABV/Ursus arctos/Russia/Primorye/PO 01/2014 (further PO 01) was isolated from the brain of the bear. PO 01 is the first completely sequenced Far Eastern strain of RABV. It can be considered as topotypic. PO 01 considerably differs from the vaccine strain RV 97 (GenBank EF542830) that is the basis of attenuated vaccine applied in the Land of the Leopard. At the same time, the immunodominant sites in PO 01 and RV 97 proteins differ slightly. It can be recommended to continue application of the vaccine. The analysis of the PO 01 genome (GenBank KP997032) revealed its belonging to the Eurasian genetic subgroup of the genotype 1 (street rage). Thus, this genetic subgroup stretches to the East. Expansion of the cross-border protected territories of Russia and China in the Far East demands the correct statistics of circulation of the lyssaviruses to be kept.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(4):180-186
pages 180-186 views

Monitoring of rabies in wild animals in the Kirov region after oral immunization

Zaykova O.N., Grebennikova T.V., Elakov A.L., Kochergin-Nikitsky K.S., Aliper T.I., Chuchalin S.F., Gulyukin A.M.


This work presents the results of the molecular genetic research on genomes of field isolates of the rabies virus circulating in the territory of the Kirov region in order to analyze the phylogenetic relationship between the wild isolate genomes and to determine the possible reversion of the vaccine strain of the rabies virus used in the oral vaccine to virulent variant. We studied 24 brain samples from wild carnivores shot after oral immunization of the area with Rabivak-O/333. A bait with the vaccine provided by the Veterinary Service of the Kirov was also studied. All samples were found to be positive for the presence of the rabies virus as established by FAT and RT-PCR techniques. Phylogenetic analysis of N genome fragments of the rabies virus showed that the field isolates from the Kirov regions were genetically close to the field isolates from Buryatia 2012. Analysis of G genome fragments showed that the Kirov field isolates were close to the isolates from Lipetsk (2011), as well as to the Ukrainian isolates (2006 and 2010). Molecular genetic analysis of the gene fragments N and G for the field isolates and fragments of the genome of the rabies virus vaccine did not reveal any reversion to the virulent vaccine strain.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(4):186-192
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S.V. Grebencha

Article E.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(4):193-193
pages 193-193 views

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