Human rotavirus infection. Strategies for the vaccinal prevention

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Rotavirus was first isolated in 1973 in Australia from children with diarrhea. Hundreds of thousands of children die annually in developing countries from this virus with the mortality peaks in the most impoverished among them. According to wHo, rotavirus infection claims about 440 thousands children lives each year, being third in the mortality rate after pneumonia and malaria. Rotavirus is widely spread throughout the world and by the age of five years almost every child encountered this pathogen at least once. Rotavirus has a high genetic and antigenic diversity. The most important for humans is the group A rotavirus, and the most common by far genotypes are G1P [8], G2P [4], G3P [8], G4P [8], G9P [8], and to a lesser extent G12P [8]. There are three gene constellations described in rotavirus designated Wa, Ds-1, and Au-1. It is believed that they originated from rotaviruses of pigs, cattle, dogs, and cats, respectively. Cases of rotavirus interspecies transmission from animal to humans were reported. The first vaccines against rotavirus infection were based on naturally attenuated virus of the animal origin. Their efficiency, especially in developing countries, was inadequate, but today China and India use vaccines based on animal rotaviruses. Using the method of gene reassortation with the cattle rotavirus WC3 as a backbone, pentavalent vaccine against most common human rotavirus serotypes was developed and now successfully used as RotaTeq. The ability of rotavirus to protect against heterologous isolates was taken into account in the development of other vaccine, Rotarix, created on the basis of rotavirus genotype G1P1A [8]. The efficacy of these vaccines in developing countries is significantly reduced (51%), the cost of a dose is high, and so the search for more effective, safe, and inexpensive vaccines against rotavirus continues around the world.

About the authors

K. P. Alekseev

Virology «Federal Research Centre of Epidemilogy and Microbiology named after the honorary academician N.F. Gamaleya»

Author for correspondence.
Russian Federation

S. L. Kalnov

Virology «Federal Research Centre of Epidemilogy and Microbiology named after the honorary academician N.F. Gamaleya»

Russian Federation

T. V. Grebennikova

Virology «Federal Research Centre of Epidemilogy and Microbiology named after the honorary academician N.F. Gamaleya»

Russian Federation

T. I. Aliper

Virology «Federal Research Centre of Epidemilogy and Microbiology named after the honorary academician N.F. Gamaleya»

Russian Federation


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Copyright (c) 2016 Alekseev K.P., Kalnov S.L., Grebennikova T.V., Aliper T.I.

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