Vol 61, No 1 (2016)

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Synthetic peptide vaccines

Sergeyev O.V., Barinsky I.F.


An update on the development and trials of synthetic peptide vaccines is reviewed. The review considers the successful examples of specific protection as a result of immunization with synthetic peptides using various protocols. The importance of conformation for the immunogenicity of the peptide is pointed out. An alternative strategy of the protection of the organism against the infection using synthetic peptides is suggested.

Problems of Virology. 2016;61(1):5-8
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Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in Russian Federation during the period of changes in vaccination schedule (2006-2013 y.y.)

Ivanova O.E., Eremeeva T.P., Morozova N.S., Shakaryan A.K., Gmyl A.P., Yakovenko M.L., Korotkova E.A., Chernjavskaja O.P., Baykova O.Y., Silenova O.V., Krasota A.Y., Krasnoproshina L.I., Mustafina A.N., Kozlovskaja L.I.


The results of virologic testing of clinical materials and epidemiological analysis of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases obtained in 2006-2013 during AFP surveillance are presented. Among the 2976 cases of AFP 30 cases were vapp. 15 cases were observed in OPV recipients, whereas 15 cases were observed in non-vaccinated contacts. The age of the patients varied from 4 months to 5.5 years (13.6 ± 12.4 months old). Children younger than 1 year constituted 63.3% of the group; boys were dominant (73.3%); 53.3% of children were vaccinated with OPV; the time period between receipt of OPV and onset of palsy was from 2 to 32 days (18.7 ± 8.2). Lower paraparesis was documented in 48.3% of patients; lower monoparesis, in 37.9%; upper monoparesis, in 6.9%; tetraparesis with bulbar syndrome, in 6%. the majority of the patients (85.7%) had an unfavorable premorbid status. The violations of the humoral immunity were found in 73.9% cases: CVID (52.9%), hypogammaglobulinemia (41.2%), selective IgA deficiency (5.9%). In 70.6% cases damage to humoral immunity was combined with poor premorbid status. The most frequently observed (76%, p <0.05) represented the single type of poliovirus – type 2 (44%) and type 3 (32%). All strains were of the vaccine origin, the divergence from the homotypic Sabin strains fell within the region of the gene encoding VP1 protein, which did not exceed 0.5% of nucleotide substitutions except vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 – multiple recombinant (type 2 / type 3 / type 2 / type 1) with the degree of the divergence of 1.44% isolated from 6-month old unvaccinated child (RUS-08063034001). The frequency of the VAPP cases was a total of 1 case per 3.4 million doses of distributed OPV in 2006-2013; 2.2 cases per 1 million of newborns were observed. This frequency decreased after the introduction of the sequential scheme of vaccination (ipv, Opv) in 2008-2013 as compared with the period of exclusive use of OPV in 2006-2007: 1 case per 4.9 million doses, 1.4 cases per 1 million newborns and 1 case per 1.9 million doses, 4.9 cases per 1 million newborns, respectively.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(1):9-15
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Development of the quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine including two influenza B lineages – Victoria and Yamagata

Desheva Y.A., Smolonogina T.A., Doroshenko E.M., Rudenko L.G.


This work is devoted to the research of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) comprising two reassortant B/USSR/60/69-based vaccine influenza viruses Victoria and Yamagata. the intranasal immunization of the CBA mice with both victoria and yamagata strains induced 100% lung protection against the subsequent infection with the wild-type influenza B viruses of any antigen lineage. the quadrivalent LAIV (qLAIV) comprising both reassortant influenza B viruses Victoria and Yamagata were safe and areactogenic in adult volunteers. Following qLAIV administration the immune response was achieved to both Victoria and Yamagata lineages.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(1):16-20
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Avian recombinant virus H5N1 influenza (A/Vietnam/1203/04) and its escape-mutant m13(13) induce early signaling reactions of the immunity in human lymphocytes

Sokolova T.M., Poloskov V.V., Shuvalov A.N., Rudneva I.A., Ershov F.I.


The innate immune receptors TLR4, TLR7, TLR8, and RIG1 recognized the structures of the influenza viruses in human lymphocytes and were activated by the recombinant avian influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/04 and its escape-mutant m13(13) during early period of interaction. The stimulated levels are not connected with viral reproduction. Donor cells with the low constitutive immune receptors gene expression levels showed higher stimulation. Inflammation virus effects resulted in increasing production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma by lymphocytes. Signaling gene reactions of the parent and mutant viruses endosomal as well as cytoplasmic receptors are very similar. The mutant virus A/Vietnam/1203/04 (HA S145F) stimulated an increase in the transcription level of the membrane receptor gene TLR4 and a decrease in the level of activation of TNF-alpha gene. Further studies of natural influenza virus isolates are necessary to estimate the role of HA antigenic changes on immune reactions in humans.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(1):21-26
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Antiviral activity of the dihydroquercetin during the Coxsackievirus В4 replication in vitro

Galochkina A.V., Zarubaev V.V., Kiselev O.I., Babkin V.A., Ostroukhova L.A.


A study of the antiviral activity of antioxidants against viral infections is believed to be essential for creating complex antiviral agents. Dihydroquercetin is considered as the most active antioxidant extracted from larix gmelinii. In this work, we present results of experiments of the antiviral properties of dihydroquercetin against a member of the family picornaviridae – Coxsackievirus B4 in vitro. We have estimated that dihydroquercetin reduces viral titers at 100 µg/ml concentration as compared with control of virus. We have shown using the plaque assay that cpe of virus is reduced in the presence of dihydroquercetin at 100 µg/ml. Study of the phase of viral life cycle, in which dihydroquercetin acted, demonstrated that the highest efficacy of the antiviral therapy was reached at early stages of virus reproduction (1-3 hours post infection). These results show that dihydroquercetin has antiviral property against Coxsackievirus B4. This drug and other antioxidants can be tested as inhibitors of viral replication.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(1):27-31
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Experimental research of the hantavirus survival in complexes with environmental substrates

Iunikhina O.V., Kompanets G.G.


Survival of viruses in the environment is a very important problem in epidemiology, especially for infections with indirect transmission. This work describes the results of the experimental study of adsorption and survival of the hantavirus on different environmental substrates (natural organic and inorganic sorbents). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution (5-10%) was effective in the hantavirus elution and phosphate-buffer saline (PBS) pH 7,2 was optimal for elution of specific RNA. Potential survival of the infectious hantavirus on environmental substrates was observed within up to 14 days at +4°С.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(1):31-33
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Clinical and Pharmacoeconomic Results of the Usage of Various HIV Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors in the Schemes of Antiretroviral Therapy of Patients Receiving Therapy for the Chronic Hepatitis C Virus

Moshkovich G.F., Minaeva S.V., Varlova L.V., Goryaeva M.P., Gulyaeva S.S., Tichonova E.V.


Efficacy, safety, and economical aspects of treatment with abacavir, zidovudine, stavudine, and phosphazide in the schemes of antiretroviral therapy of the HIV-infected patients receiving therapy for hepatitis C virus were tested. Clinical, immunological, and virologic efficacy of treatment and dynamics of hemoglobin, thrombocytes, and alanine aminotransferase as markers of common adverse events recorded at the start of the antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C and after 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 weeks of the treatment were evaluated. The usage of these drugs in the schemes of antiretroviral therapy exhibited efficacy, high tolerability and safety for all HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(1):34-39
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Cytokines during the human immunodeficiency virus infection type 1(HIV-1)

Selimova L.M., Kalnina L.B., Serebrovskaya L.V., Ivanova L.A., Gulyaeva A.N., Nosik D.N.


In this work the proinflammatory (IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) plasma cytokine levels were evaluated in HIV-infected patients with or without antiretroviral treatment (ART). IFN-γ was detected in 94% samples with and without art, TNF-α in 88% and il-2 in 38% samples without ART, as well as in 12% and 30% samples with ART, respectively. Positive correlation was detected between viral RNA and IFN-γ levels (rs = 0.13) and negative correlation (rs = –0.242) in the patients without or with ART. Cosecretion of three cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2) was detected in 31% samples and two cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α) in 35% samples of persons without ART. Cosecretion of three cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2) was detected in 20% samples with ART; cosecretion of IFN-γ and IL-2 was detected in 10% samples. The higher percentage of the proinflammatory cytokines with cosecretion was detected in plasma HIV-infected patients without ART in the course of 6 and more years, which suggests that their immune system is able to provide disease control.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(1):39-41
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Identification of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using the enzyme mmunoassay

Zavyalova E.A., Gulyukin M.I., Carpova M.A., Bogdanova P.D., Droshnev A.E.


The infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) caused by a non-enveloped virus of the Birnaviridae family is one of the most important loss factors in the salmonid aquaculture. Virus isolation in the sensitive cell cultures has been approved in the Russian Federation as the diagnostic method for determination of IPNV antigen. This work gives the results of the development of the diagnostic test to reveal IPNV using the antigen-bound ELISA (sandwich ELISA). The developed test supplements a new diagnostic method and verifies some disputable results obtained with classical methods.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(1):42-45
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Study of the isolated bacteriophage ΦAb-Sр7 adsorption on the cell surface of the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7

Guliy O.I., Karavaeva O.A., Velikov V.A., Sokolov O.I., Pavliy S.A., Larionova O.S., Burov A.M., Ignatov O.V.


The bacteriophage ΦAb-Sр7 was isolated from the cells of the azospirillum brasilense sp7. The morphology, size of the gram-negative colonies, and range of lytic activity against other strains and species of the genus Azospirillum was tested. The isolated phage DNA was examined using electrophoretic and restriction analysis, and the size of the genome were established. The electron microscopy results show that the phage (capsid) has a strand-like form. The electron microscopy study of the bacteriophage ΦAb-Sр7 adsorption on the A. brasilense Sp7 bacterial surface was performed.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(1):45-48
pages 45-48 views

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