Vol 64, No 6 (2019)


Review of current issues of diagnosis and prevention of blood-borne nosocomial viral infections

Akimkin V.G., Alimov A.V., Zakharova Y.A., Bolgarova E.V., Piterskiy M.V., Sisin E.I.


Provision of infection security in transplantology and transfusiology is a challenging and significant problem that depends on the quality of medical donor selection and laboratory diagnosis of the blood collected. At present, a large number of blood-borne viruses are known; nevertheless, in Russia, the list of viral agents to be tested during the examination by the blood service boils down to three ones: HIV, hepatitis C and hepatitis B viruses.
The review article demonstrates the need for implementation of additional laboratory tests for the agents of the priority healthcare-associated blood-borne infections (HAI) using a risk-based approach, i.e., on specified sites and in high risk groups. It presents a methodology for determination of a quantitative blood-induced infection residual risk (BIRR) index to be used while evaluating the efficiency of viral security provision in the blood service.

Problems of Virology. 2019;64(6):262-267
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Assessment of the antiviral activity of 2HCl*H-His-Rim compound compared to the anti-influenza drug Arbidol for influenza caused by A/duck/Novosibirsk/56/05 (H5N1) (Influenza A virus, Alphainfluenzavirus, Orthomyxoviridae)

Deryabin P.G., Garaev T.M., Finogenova M.P., Odnovorov A.I.


Introduction. The emergence of influenza virus strains with drug resistance to antiviral drugs requires finding new compounds, potential direct-acting inhibitors. Аdamantane compounds drugs used since the 1960s have lost their activity the resulting due to resistance. Only neuraminidase inhibitors such as zanamivir and oseltamivir have been approved by WHO for influenza treatment. The Russian pharmaceutical drug Arbidol (Umifenovirum) is actively used in Russia. This drug is used to treat influenza in Russia, China and most post-Soviet republics. This work presents a new derivative of aminoadamantane - dichlorohydrate L-histidyl-1-adamantayl ethylamine (2HCl*H-His-Rim), which showed a high level of inhibition of strains of influenza virus A in vitro.
Objectives. Comparison of antiviral properties of the new synthetic low-molecular inhibitor of influenza A virus replication and Arbidol drug pharmacy.
Methods. The compound 2HCl*H-His-Rim was obtained by classical peptide synthesis methods. It was identified by methods of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Its antiviral properties have been studied in vitro for monolayer of cells Vero-E6 infected with a high-virulent strain of A/duck/Novosibirsk/56/06 (H5N1) influenza virus at various injection schemes of the investigated compounds.
The results. The antiviral activity of the 2HCl*H-His-Rim compound against the highly pathogenic strain of the influenza A/H5N1 virus was slightly higher than for the known pharmacy drug arbidol.
Discussion. The difference in antiviral activity of these two compounds is explained by different mechanisms of action on the viral particle.
Conclusion. The 2HCl*H-His-Rim compound can be recommended as a candidate for preclinical and clinical trials in order to obtain an etiotropic antiviral drug based on it, due to its high efficacy and economic and synthetic availability. The synthetic compound 2HCl*H-His-Rim acts on influenza A virus variants resistant to Rimantadine and Amantadine.
Problems of Virology. 2019;64(6):268-273
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Belgorod region – the territory endemic for hepatitis E

Kyuregyan K.K., Polyakov A.D., Potemkin I.A., Karlsen A.A., Isaeva O.V., Lopatukhina M.A., Mullin E.V., Slukinova O.S., Malinnikova E.Y., Shibrik E.V., Oglezneva E.E., Mikhailov M.I.


Introduction. Belgorod region is the territory with the highest incidence of hepatitis E in the Russian Federation.
The aim of the study was to comprehensively characterize the circulation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the Belgorod region, including the study of population immunity to the virus, determining the prevalence of infection among the pig population and analysis of the genetic diversity of HEV from patients and animals.
Material and methods. Serum samples of a conditionally healthy population (n = 2027) of all age groups were tested for anti-HEV IgG and IgM by ELISA with commercial assays. HEV RNA was determined in fecal samples from pigs aged 2–4 months (n = 526), in sewage samples from pig farms (n = 10), as well as in stool samples from patients with hepatitis E (n = 6) using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Phylogenetic analysis was performed for an amplified 300 nt fragment corresponding to HEV open reading frame 2.
Results and discussion. The prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in general population averaged 16.4% (95% CI: 14.8–18.1; 332/2027). The proportion of individuals who had both anti-HEV IgM and IgG averaged 2.8% (95% CI: 2.2–3.6; 57/2027). The incidence rate of anti-HEV IgG increased with age, from 2.8% (95% CI: 1.3-5.8) in children aged 1–14 years to 40.1% (95% CI: 34.9-45.6) in people 70 years or older. The detection rate of HEV RNA in pigs was 20% (95% CI: 16.8-23.6; 105/526). HEV RNA was detected in 2 out of 10 sewage samples. The HEV sequences isolated from patients with hepatitis E, pigs, and sewage samples in Belgorod region belonged to the HEV genotype 3, had a 95-100% homology, and formed common clusters on a phylogenetic tree.
Conclusions. The high prevalence of HEV in pigs population has led to the formation of an endemic territory in the Belgorod region, which is the center of pig breeding. Measures aimed at reducing the circulation of HEV among pig population and decontamination of sewage from pig farms are necessary to control HEV infection.
Problems of Virology. 2019;64(6):274-280
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Analysis of HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency virus-1, Lentivirus, Orthoretrovirinae, Retroviridae) Nef protein polymorphism of variants circulating in the former USSR countries

Gromov K.B., Kazennova E.V., Kireev D.E., Murzakova A.V., Lopatukhin A.E., Bobkova M.R.


Introduction. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Nef protein is one of the key factors determining the infectivity and replicative properties of HIV. With the ability to interact with numerous proteins of the host cell, this protein provides the maximum level of virus production and protects it from the immune system. The main activities of Nef are associated with a decrease in the expression of the CD4 receptor and major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I), as well as the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. These properties of the protein are determined by the structure of several motifs in the structure of the nef gene encoding it, which is quite variable.
Goals and tasks. The main goal of the work was to analyze the characteristics of Nef protein of HIV-1 variant A6, which dominates in the countries of the former USSR. The objective of the work was a comparative analysis of natural polymorphisms in the nef gene of HIV-1 sub-subtypes A6 and A1 and subtype B.
Material and methods. The sequences of the HIV-1 genome obtained during the previous work of the laboratory were used, as well as the reference sequence from GenBank. In this work, Sanger sequencing and new generation sequencing methods, as well as bioinformation analysis methods were used.
Results and discussion. The existence of noticeable differences in the prevalence of Nef natural polymorphisms (A32P, E38D, I43V, A54D, Q104K, H116N, Y120F, Y143F, V168M, H192T, V194R, R35Q, D108E, Y135F, E155K, E182M, R184K and F191L), some of which are characteristic mutations for variant A6, was shown. Conclusion. Characteristic substitutions were found in the Nef structure, potentially capable of weakening the replicative properties of HIV-1 variant A6.
Problems of Virology. 2019;64(6):281-290
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Rapid immunochemical method for the detection of orthopoxviruses (Orthopoxvirus, Chordopoxvirinae, Poxviridae)

Poltavchenko A.G., Ersh A.V., Taranov O.S., Yakubitskiy S.N., Filatov P.V.


Introduction. The abolition of smallpox vaccination has led to the disappearance of population immunity to pox viruses. However, the threat of infection by pathogenic orthopoxviruses persists and determines the need to develop sensitive and operational methods for indicating pathogens.
Objectives and purposes. Development of a sensitive, fast and easy-to-use immunochemical test for the detection of orthopoxviruses in the «point of care» format.
Material and methods. We used preparations of cultural vaccinia virus (VV) with varying degrees of purification, polyclonal antibodies from hyperimmune rabbit serum, and equipment from a previously developed autonomous kit for dot-immunoassay on flat protein arrays.
Results and discussion. It has been established that rabbit polyclonal antibodies can be used in a single-stage dotanalysis, both as a capture agent immobilized on a substrate and as a detection reagent bound with colloidal gold particles. It is shown that the effectiveness of the detection of VV is inversely related to the degree of purification of viruses from sub-viral structures. The sensitivity of the rapid detection of viruses in a crude preparation was about 30 times higher than in pure viral material. The increase in sensitivity, presumably, occurs due to binding to the capture antibodies of subviral structures, which form large aggregates of sensitized gold particles. The test does not detect cross-reactions with heterogeneous viruses (measles, rubella and chickenpox) that cause exantematous diseases.
Conclusion. The one-stage variant of the dot-immunoassay reduces the analysis time to 40 minutes and improves the detection sensitivity of orthopoxviruses in crude viral preparations to the range of 105-104 PFU / ml. Full makeup, ease of analysis and the ability to visually accounting for results allow the test to be used outside of laboratories.
Problems of Virology. 2019;64(6):291-297
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Analysis of determination of rabies virus neutralizing antibody titres in the sera of vaccinated humans

Butirskiy A.Y., Muhacheva A.V., Movsesyants A.A., Sarkisyan K.A.


Introduction. Rabies is an infectious disease that is always fatal following the onset of clinical symptoms. The only way to prevent the cases of rabies in humans is timely carried out the rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in accordance with the recommended schedule.
The aim of the study was to characterize the level of immune response in persons that received a post-exposure prophylaxis against rabies, to consider the role of the factors of the formation immune responses to rabies vaccines .
Material and methods. In the laboratory of viral vaccines of the Scientific Centre for Expert Evaluation of Medicinal Products, the 48 sera of patients that received the post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies after wounds from a rabid or suspected rabid animal has been studied. The titer of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) to the rabies virus in the sera of the vaccinated not less than 1:64 (corresponding to a level of VNA at least 0,5 IU /ml) in the mouse neutralization test indicates the effective vaccination.
Results and discussion. Our data confirm the absence of statistically significant differences in the level of VNA in the vaccinated persons that received a complete and incomplete (5 doses) course of post-exposure vaccination against rabies. Depending on the level of VNA, all patients are divided into groups with conditionally low, medium and high content of antibodies in sera.
Conclusion. It has been shown that in most cases properly administered vaccination contributed to the formation of effective immune response. The lack of a protective level of BHA requires additional administration of the vaccine and analysis of the factors that influenced the ineffectiveness of vaccination. In some patients the determination of rabies virus neutralizing antibody titres is necessary.
Problems of Virology. 2019;64(6):298-305
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Epizootic characteristics of rabies and rabies assistance in the territory of the Kirov region in the years 2010-2018

Savinykh N.A., Dehtereva N.V., Savinykh M.V., Kaluzhskich T.I.


Introduction. One of the negative consequences of an increase in the incidence of animal rabies is the increased risk of human infection. Goals and objectives: study of the main manifestations of rabies epizootic and the status of anti-rabies care in the Kirov region in 2010-2018.
Material and methods. Reporting forms of monitoring the situation of rabies FBHI “Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Kirov Region” for 2010-2018 were statistically processed and studied.
Results. Since 2014, increase in the incidence of rabies among animals and expansion of the boundaries of the range have been revealed. Rabies is recorded among foxes (67%), raccoon dogs (up to 40%), domestic and farm animals. Every year in Kirov region over 4 thousand people get injured from animals: dogs (76%) and cats (20%). Damage is often localized on the lower extremities (34%) and was the most dangerous on the head, neck, face, hands (29%). In average of 3,500 victims are sent to immunization.
Discussion. An inverse correlation dependence between preventive oral immunization of wild animals and contacts of people with rabid animals was revealed. A high percentage of refusals from vaccination (up to 31%) is associated with low sanitary literacy of the population.
Conclusion. The problem of rabies is relevant for the Kirov region. An increase of the proportion of infected domestic and farm animals leads to an increase the risk of human disease. In order to stabilize rabies epizootic, it is necessary to carry out the whole complex of prophylactic measures.

Problems of Virology. 2019;64(6):306-310
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Index of articles published in 2019

Editorial a.



Problems of Virology. 2019;64(6):311-312
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