Vol 61, No 5 (2016)

Dmitriy Konstantinovich L'vov (to the 85th anniversary)

Problems of Virology. 2016;61(5):197-199
pages 197-199 views

REVIEWS

Buffalopox

Borisevich S.V., Marennikova S.S., Stovba L.F., Petrov A.A., Krotkov V.T., Makhlai A.A.

Abstract

Buffalopox is a contagious viral disease affecting milch buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis) and, rarely, cows. The disease has zoonotic implications, as outbreaks are frequently associated with human infections, particularly in the milkers. Buffalopox is associated with high morbidity (80%). The clinical symptoms of the disease are characterized by wartline lesions on the udder, teats, inguinal region, base of the ears, and over the parotid. In the severe form, generalized rash is observed. Although the disease does not lead to high mortality, it has an adverse effect on the productivity and working capacity of the animals resulting in large economic losses. The outbreaks of buffalopox occurred frequently in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Iran, Egypt, and Indonesia, where buffaloes are reared as milch animals. The buffalopox is closely related with other Orthopoxviruses. In particular, it is close to the vaccinia virus. There is a view that the buffalopox virus might be derived from the vaccinia virus. It is possible that it became pathogenic to humans and animals through adaptive evolution of the genome by obtaining the virulence genes. PCR is performed for the C18L gene for the purpose of specific detection and differentiation of the buffalopox virus from other orthopoxviruses. The C18L gene encodes the ankyrin repeat protein, which determines the virus host range. The open reading frame of this gene is only 150-nucleotide long as against 453 nucleotide in the vaccinia virus, 756 - in the camelpox virus, and 759 - in the cowpox virus. It can be concluded that a systematic study based on the epidemiology of the virus, existence of reservoirs, biological transmission, and the molecular organization of the buffalopox virus from buffalo, cow, and humans may pave the way to a better understanding of the circulating virus and contribute to the control of the disease using the suitable diagnostic and prophylactic measures.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(5):200-204
pages 200-204 views

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Diagnostic value of the Epstein-Barr virus serological markers in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in cases of undetectable primary tumor location

Gurtsevitch V.E., Senyuta N.B., Lomaya M.V., Ignatova A.V., Dushenkina T.E., Repkina I.A., Pavlovskaya A.I., Mudunov A.M.

Abstract

The goal of this work was to describe a method for diagnosis of the non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (nNPC) in cases of the undetectable primary tumor location. The method is based on evaluation of IgG and IgA antibody levels to the capsid (VCA) and early antigens (EA) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The diagnosis of nNPC is established by a so-called decision rule. The latter was created by mathematical processing of the method of multifactor analysis of the results of anti-EBV antibody testing of 72 patients with clinically and morphologically confirmed nNPC and 72 patients with other head and neck benign tumors (OHNT) not associated with EBV, which were tested as a control group. The diagnostic value of the decision rule which was tested in the group of 77 patients with confirmed nNPC and 231 patients of a control group was high. The numbers of false negative and false positive cases were equal to 5.2% (4/77) and 6.5% (17/231), respectively. Among 32 patients with undetectable primary tumors the decision rule was able to identify 11 cases of nNPC. This diagnosis later was confirmed by morphological and instrumental methods of study. Only in two cases, false negative result was obtained (2/32; 6.3%) indicating that the serological diagnostics of nNPC with the decision rule is highly specific but not exact. Thus, the data obtained allowed us to conclude that the serological testing of EBV specific antibody evaluated by the decision rule can be recommended as an important test supplementing the standard methods of pdNPC diagnostics including cases with undetected primary tumor location.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(5):205-212
pages 205-212 views

IL17A gene polymorphisms: relationship to predisposition for chronic viral hepatitis and progression to liver cirrhosis in kazakh population

Massabayeva M.R., Aukenov N.E., Mussazhanova Z.B., Saenko V.A., Rogounovitch T.I., Shaimardanov N.K., Kurmanova B.R., Barkibaeva N.R., Rakhypbekov T.K.

Abstract

Introduction. This work is the first genetic association study of a potential relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms rs8193036 and rs2275913 located in the IL17A promoter on chromosome 6p12 to chronic viral hepatitis and its progression in Kazakh population. Purpose. Evaluation of the effect of IL17A polymorphism on predisposition for chronic hepatitis B and C and its progression to liver cirrhosis. Material and methods. A total of 862 individuals were enrolled in the retrospective case-control association study. Among the participants, 100 patients had chronic hepatitis B and/or C and liver cirrhosis, and 341 patients had chronic viral hepatitis only. Four hundred twenty-one (421) healthy HBV- and HCV-negative donors without liver diseases were recruited as population control. single nucleotide polymorphisms rs8193036[T/C] and rs2275913[G/A] were genotyped by TaqMan assays using genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells. Results. Minor allele frequencies of rs8193036[C] and rs2275913[A] in the groups of patients were very similar to those observed in the control population, 0.4 and 0.3, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed odds ratios close to 1.0 and confidence intervals overlapping with the value of 1.0 and statistical significance p > 0.4 for any groups under comparison in the multiplicative model of inheritance. Conclusion. No significant association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs8193036 and rs2275913 in the IL17A promoter, and susceptibility to chronic viral hepatitis C and/or B and disease progression to liver cirrhosis in Kazakh population were found.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(5):212-219
pages 212-219 views

Immunofluorescence diagnosis of the herpesvirus stillborn infection

Glukhovets B.I., Glukhovets N.G., Belitchenko N.V., Sosunova O.A.

Abstract

Congenital herpes infection belongs to the category of actual problems of Perinatal Medicine. Pathological diagnosis of this disease is not effective in the routine method of autopsy studies without virological research. Objective. Determination of the value of the fluorescent antibody technique in the diagnosis of congenital herpes infection of the stillborn is a promising approach to medical diagnosis. subjects and methods. In 96 cases of stillbirth immunofluorescent identification of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and cytomegalovirus in the placenta and internal organs (brain, heart, lungs, and liver) was implemented. The findings were compared with the results of a complete histological examination of the heart, including its rhythmogenic centers. Results. The herpes viruses were found in 51 observations (53.1%). Among them, HSV-1 were found in 16 observations (16.7%), HSV-2, in 19 (19.7%), CMV, in 16 (16.7%). In 34 stillbirths (35.8%) the pathological signs of herpetic atrial myocarditis were observed, which were regarded as the cause of death. Conclusion. The use of the fluorescent antibody technique in the autopsy practice is an effective way of diagnosis of intrauterine infection caused by the herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(5):219-221
pages 219-221 views

Analysis of the env gene variability of the IDU-A HIV-1 variant in the outbreak of the HIV infection epidemic in Perm region of Russia (1996-2011)

Lebedev A.V., Kazennova E.V., Zverev S.Y., Nistratova Y.I., Laga V.Y., Tumanov A.S., Glushchenko N.V., Yarygina E.I., Bobkova M.R.

Abstract

In the present work, a total of 132 HIV-1 env gene C2-V3-C3 sequences belonging to the IDU-A genetic variant were analyzed. The variants were obtained from the viruses circulating among IDUs and heterosexuals in the Perm region at different periods. It was shown that the rate of the divergence of the IDU-A HIV-1 viruses from a common ancestor increased 4.3 times (p < 0.001) in 2011 as compared with the onset of the epidemics. The rate of the HIV-1 evolution was different in the two risk groups of the infection. The mean genetic distance of HIV-1 variants circulating among heterosexuals was 1.3 times longer (p = 0.008) than that among IDUs. The accumulation rate of the nucleotide (including nonsynonymous) substitutions in the C2-V3-C3 HIV-1 env gene region among individuals infected by heterosexual contacts was 1.7 times higher than that among IDUs. The differences in the positions of the codons subjected to positive selection were demonstrated depending on the infection risk group tested.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(5):222-229
pages 222-229 views

Tick-borne encephalitis virus isolates from natural foci of the Irkutsk region: clarification of the genotype landscape

Mel’Nikova O.V., Adel’Shin R.V., Korzun V.M., Trushina Y.N., Andaev E.I.

Abstract

The Irkutsk region is the unique territory where all known subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) circulate. In the last years, the phenomenon of changes in TBEV subtypes (substitution of the Far-Eastern subtype by the Siberian one) was noted in some regions of the Russian Federation. The results of individual investigation of 11522 Ixodes persulcatus ticks and brain specimens from 81 small mammals collected in natural foci of the Irkutsk region during 2006-2014 are presented in the article. More than 60 TBEV strains have been isolated and studied by virological methods; E gene fragments (1193 b.p.) of 68 isolates have been typed. The majority of the strains (irrespective of subtype) were of high virulence for laboratory mice (LM) in case of both intracerebral and subcutaneous inoculation of virus. All isolates from warm-blooded small mammals and humans were of high virulence for LM, but placed in the same clusters of the phylogenetic tree with ticks collected in the same area. Tick-borne strains of different virulence also did not form separate clusters on the tree. Phylogenetic analysis showed that modern TBEV genotypic landscape of the studied territory is changing toward absolute predominance of the Siberian subtype (94.1%). This subtype is represented by two groups with prototype strains “Zausaev” and “Vasilchenko”. The “Vasilchenko” group of strains is spread on the whole territory under study; the strains of “Zausaev” group were isolated previously in the Irkutsk suburbs. The European subtype of TBEV circulates in natural foci of Pribaikalie permanently (at least 5% of the random sampling); the strains are of high virulence for LM. The Far-Eastern TBEV subtype was not found within the group of isolates collected in 20062014. The phylogenetic relationship of the strains under study had a higher correlation with the place of isolation than with the year or source.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(5):229-234
pages 229-234 views

TO VIROLOGIST’S AID

Development and evaluation of the RT-PCR kit for the rabies virus diagnosis

Dedkov V.G., Deviatkin A.A., Poleschuk E.M., Safonova M.V., Markelov M.L., Shipulin G.A.

Abstract

To improve the diagnosis, surveillance, and control for the rabies virus, a kit for hybridization-triggered fluorescence detection of rabies virus DNA by the RT-PCR technique was developed and evaluated. The analytical sensitivity of the kit was 4*103 GE per ml. High specificity of the kit was shown using representative sampling of viral, bacterial, and human nucleic acids.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(5):235-240
pages 235-240 views


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