Vol 63, No 1 (2018)

REVIEWS

GIANT VIRUSES: ORIGIN, SPREADING, TAXONOMICAL, STRUCTURAL-MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR-BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Lvov D.K., Sizikova T.E., Lebedev V.N., Borisevich S.V.

Abstract

The brief review is devoted to description of the discovery of giant viruses belonging to the families of Mimiviridae and Marseilleviridae, as well as unassigned genera Pithoviruses, Pandoravirus, and Molliviruses. The review presents issues of their origin, evolution, and molecular-biological characteristics.
Problems of Virology. 2018;63(1):5-10
pages 5-10 views

THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ASPECTS OF THE INTERFERON SYSTEM: TO THE 60TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE DISCOVERY OF INTERFERONS

Ershov F.I., Narovlyansky A.N.

Abstract

The review contains a brief analysis of the 60-year history of the discovery, study and medical application of interferons, a new group of remarkable proteins that have found wide medical application in the therapy of virological, oncological, neurological, ophthalmic and other pathologies. Modern data on the classification of interferons and the mechanisms of their action are given. Particular attention is paid to the clinical use of medications of interferon and its inducers.
Problems of Virology. 2018;63(1):10-18
pages 10-18 views

THE ROLE OF DNA-METHYLTRANSFERASES IN THE LIFE CYCLE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS AND PATHOGENESIS OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS B

Kostyushev D.S., Zueva A.P., Brezgin S.A., Lipatnikov A.D., Volchkova E.V., Maleyev V.V., Chulanov V.P.

Abstract

Chronic hepatitis B is caused by a persistent form of hepatitis B virus, covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Stability of cccDNA is associated with intracellular localization of cccDNA and formation of minichromosome, regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. One of the key mechanisms in epigenetics is methylation of DNA on CpG islands. Expression levels of DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs) in chronic hepatitis B patients were shown to be upregulated. Nevertheless, the role of DNMTs in the life cycle of HBV and their effects on the cell remain elusive. In this review, we discuss latest achievements on the role of DNMTs in chronic hepatitis B and HBV in vitro models.
Problems of Virology. 2018;63(1):19-29
pages 19-29 views

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

DEFINITION AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE GENOMIC STRUCTURE OF SIBERIAN STRAINS OF TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS OF THE EUROPEAN SUBTYPE

Demina T.V., Kozlova I.V., Tkachev S.E., Doroshchenko E.K., Lisak O.V., Savinova Y.S., Suntsova O.V., Verkhozina M.M., Dzhioev Y.P., Paramonov A.I., Kiselev D.O., Zlobin V.I.

Abstract

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is classified into three subtypes: Far Eastern (TBEV-FE), European (TBEV-EU) and Siberian (TBEV-SIB). In Russia, these are also called genotypes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Geographically, TBEV-EU dominates in Central and Northern Europe, but its representatives are also found to the east - along the southern part of the forest zone of extratropical Eurasia - up to Eastern Siberia and South Korea. However, the strains isolated outside Europe remain poorly investigated. In the proposed study, eight full genomes of the Siberian isolates of TBEV-EU were determined and 13 complete genomes were compared. The analysis of 152 full-genome TBEV sequences showed that the TBEV-EU has a higher degree of stability of the genome-coding region in the entire Eurasian area (3.1% of differences) compared to TBEV-FE (6.6%) and TBEV-SIB (7.8%). At the same time, the maximum differences are observed not between European and Siberian strains, as one could expect, but between the representatives from Europe - TBEV strains Mandl-2009 from Norway and Hypr from the Czech Republic. The studied strains from Siberia form the compact genetic cluster of 42 TBEV-EU strains and are divided into two subclusters - West Siberian and East Siberian variants. These variants differ in the combinations of amino acid substitutions in all proteins except NS2B. The West Siberian variant mostly circulates in the territory of Altai, and the closest relative of its representatives is Absettarov strain from the European part of Russia. The strains similar to the East Siberian variant of the European subtype were recorded in the Altai (strain 84.2, 2007) and in Belarus (N256, about 1940).
Problems of Virology. 2018;63(1):29-36
pages 29-36 views

COMPARISON OF RESULTS OBTAINED BY ELISA AND NEUTRALIZATION TEST IN ASSESSING THE PROTECTION OF POPULATION FROM TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS

Chernokhaeva L.L., Maikova G.B., Rogova Y.V., Romanenko V.V., Ankudinova A.V., Kilyachina A.S., Vorovich M.F., Karganova G.G.

Abstract

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the neutralization test (NT) are often used to determine the level of seropositive population and to evaluate the immunogenicity of vaccines. ELISA provides information on the total pool of antiviral antibodies, while NT allows the antiviral protection level of a person to be estimated. It is assumed that the 1:100 titer in ELISA and the 1:10 titer in NT are protective. Obviously, the ratio of the total pool and virus neutralizing antibodies can vary as a result of natural immunization or vaccination. In this study, two methods were used to study the blood serum samples taken in a group of inhabitants of the Sverdlovsk region aged from 1 to 60 years. The samples were collected before immunization and 30 days after two immunizations with inactivated vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis of different manufacturers. Immunizations were performed either according to a standard scheme (30-day interval between immunizations), or according to an emergency scheme (14-day interval). It was shown that the data on the presence of antiviral antibodies in protective titers obtained by ELISA and NT were consistent in more than 85% of cases. The discrepancies between the data are due, in the first place, to the difference in the sensitivities of the two methods. The proportion of seropositive people according to NT data is always greater than that according to the results of ELISA. Nevertheless, among 174 children, about 5% of recipients after a double immunization were seropositive according to ELISA, but did not have neutralizing antibodies in protective titers.
Problems of Virology. 2018;63(1):36-40
pages 36-40 views

CRITERIA OF RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY: EVIDENCE FROM HIV TREATMENT

Rostova N.B., Gudilina N.A.

Abstract

Results of evaluation of the impact of drugs on indicators of clinical laboratory diagnostics as a criterion of safety of therapy are presented. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection was chosen as an example. Information from official sources (summary of product characteristics and medicinal product labels) on the potential impact of antiretroviral drugs registered in the Russian Federation on indicators of clinical laboratory diagnostics was analyzed and systematized. Individual INN and antiretroviral regimens recommended by WHO documents and protocols of follow-up and treatment of patients with HIV infection in the Russian Federation with the maximum and minimum potential impact on indicators of clinical laboratory diagnostics were revealed. The research results can be used to develop recommendations for the rational choice, prescription and use of medicines.
Problems of Virology. 2018;63(1):41-47
pages 41-47 views

BOOK REVIEW

pages 48-48 views


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