Vol 61, No 6 (2016)


Evolution of influ- 245 enza A/H5N1 virus (1996-2016)

Shchelkanov M.Y., Kirillov I.M., Shestopalov A.M., Litvin K.E., Deryabin P.G., Lvov D.K.


Twenty years ago in the South Chinese province of Guangdong the epizooty of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus, which has laid the foundation of the largest epizooty in the contemporary history, has flashed. Hemagglutinin of prototype A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1) changing many times and generating new genetic subgroups participated in various reassortations; it still exists today. The present review is devoted to the retrospective analysis of HPAI/H5N1evolution for the last twenty years in the territory of Eurasia, Africa and America. The basis for the discussion is ecological model according to which new genetic variants are formed in the migration pathways with close contacts between different bird populations and in the overwintering areas where the maximum values of the immune layer occur; amplification of virus variants occurs in nesting areas among juvenile populations. The updated system of designations of genetic groups introduced by WHO/OIE/FAO H5 Evolution Working Group in 2015 is used.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(6):245-256
pages 245-256 views


Highly reproductive attenuated H2N2 and H7N9 reassortants on the basis of A/Hong Kong/1/68/162/35 donor virus

Vidyaeva I.G., Potapchuk M.V., Repko I.A., Petrov S.V., Tsybalova L.M.


Reassortants with surface antigens from potentially pandemic A/H2N2 and A/H7N9 influenza viruses were created on the basis of attenuated and highly reproductive A/Hong Kong/1/68/162/35(H3N2) donor virus obtained in the Research institute of influenza. High reproductive activity of reassortant viruses and immunogenicity of live and inactivated influenza vaccines based on these viruses indicate the possibility to use obtained reassortants for production of live and inactivated vaccines against potentially pandemic influenza A viruses.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(6):257-262
pages 257-262 views

Comparative efficiency of pathogen treatment of acute respiratory viral infections

Petlenko S.V., Osidak L.V., Smirnov V.S., Stukan’ N.I., Afanas’Eva O.I., Golovacheva E.G.


The article presents the results of clinical studies on the comparative effectiveness of different forms of the drug Cytovir-3 (syrup and powder for solution for oral administration) and Immunal l in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in children. It was found in a comparative randomized parallel-group study of 90 children aged two through six years that the drug Cytovir-3 (syrup and powder) became active faster than the comparison drug Immunal, providing normalization of body temperature, reduction of some manifestations of the general intoxication and respiratory syndrome, as well as elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin A. All drugs in the study had an equally normalizing effect on the content of peripheral blood leukocytes and erythrocyte sedimentation rates. The compared products were characterized by good tolerability, lack of side effects and high preventive efficacy against respiratory disease complications. Cytovir-3 drugs (syrup and powder for oral solution) and Immunal had similar ratios of clinical and laboratory safety, efficacy and tolerability. Both products can be used for the treatment of respiratory diseases in children aged two through six years.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(6):263-269
pages 263-269 views

Integrative and episomal forms of genotype 16 of human papillomavirus in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

Ibragimova M.K., Tsyganov M.M., Karabut I.V., Churuksaeva O.N., Shpileva O.N., Bychkov V.A., Kolomiets L.A., Litviakov N.V.


The study involved 500 patients with LSIL (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), HSIL (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), stage I-IV cervical cancer, infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), as well as 235 women without pathological changes in cervical mucosa. The comprehensive survey included colposcopy, cytological and histological analysis, detection and genotyping of high-risk human papillomavirus. Viral load and physical status of HPV16 DNA was evaluated in cases of mono-infection (n = 148). The prevalence of virus-positive cases among the patients with LSIL/NSIL, cervical cancer patients and healthy women was 69.2%, 76.7% and 51.9%, respectively. An association between the severity of disease and high viral load was revealed. The frequency of integrated DNA was strongly increased in patients with a high viral load. The frequency of episomal forms was either reduced or not detecteable in patients with high viral load as compared to patients with low viral load. It is reasonable to suggest that a high HPV16 viral load may cause an increase in the frequency of integration of virus DNA into the cellular/host genome. This suggests that a high HPV16 viral load may be considered as a risk factor for prognosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(6):270-274
pages 270-274 views

Genetic aspects of HPV infection detection in tumor and adjacent tissues of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Dvoryaninova O.Y., Nikitina E.G., Bychkov V.A., Litviakov N.V.


The article describes methods for the human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in tumor and adjacent (morphologically intact) tissues of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSSC) in terms of viral pathogenesis. Comparative evaluation of the principles and techniques for HPV detection was performed. Advantages and disadvantages of the HPV detection methods are described. Approaches for DNA and HPV oncoproteins E6-E7 identification are substantiated. The results of our research into the qualitative and quantitative detection of HPV in the tumor and adjacent tissues of patients with Lssc are described. The research was conducted using commercial test systems Amplisens HPV HR screen-titre-FL and Amplisens HPV HR genotype-FL. Based on these results we developed the algorithm of HPV detection in samples of tumor tissue of patients with Lssc. The need for typing HPV-positive tissue samples with low concentration of HPV DNA was discussed.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(6):275-279
pages 275-279 views

Hepatitis B and C viruses interference in coinfected multitransfused recipients

Yaroslavtseva N.G., Ignatova E.N., Romanova T.Y., Tikhomirov D.S., Tupoleva T.A.


Data on hepatitis B (HBV) and c (HCV) viruses interference in hematological patients are described. Patients with a hematological malignancy are at high risk of HBV and HCV infection as recipients of multiple transfusions. Results of the laboratory testing of 339 blood samples of patients treated at the National Research center for Hematology, Russian Federation, were studied. Among these patients, HBV/HCV coinfection markers were observed in 153 patients; HBV markers only, in 76 patients; HCV markers only, in 110 patients. The vast majority of coinfected patients had HBV DNA in blood (significantly more in HBsAg-negative patients: 100% vs. 82.8%, p = 0. 0005). HBsAg-negative coinfected patients had low HBV DNA levels (102-103ME/ml) and reduced (or completely absent) HCV RNA levels. The virus interference leads to a decrease in the viral nucleic acid concentrations. Thus, virus detection should include implementation of high sensitive molecular techniques (such as real-time PCR), and an enhanced set of serological HBV markers along with routine screening methods (HBsAg, anti-HCV).
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(6):280-284
pages 280-284 views


Testing patients with uveal melanoma for herpesvirus infections

Saakyan S.V., Myakoshina E.B., Krichevskaya G.I., Slepova O.S., Panteleeva O.G., Andryushin A.E., Khoroshilova I.P., Zakharova G.P.


Results of comprehensive ELISA tests of blood serum for the presence of IgM-, IgA-, and IgG-antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, human herpesvirus 6, human herpes virus 8 type, Chlamydia trachomatis in 38 patients with uveal melanoma are presented. The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect DNA of these pathogens in tumor biopsies, vitreous body of 10 enucleated eyes, as well as in plasma IgG-antibodies to HHV 6 were revealed in 50% of patients; IgG-antibodies to HHV 8, in 5.3% of patients. Among the 16 patients with uveal melanoma at advanced stages, 6 patients had antibodies indicative of EBV reactivation (1.2-3.3). Chlamydia trachomatis genome was detected in both biopsies; in one of them, in conjunction with EBV and CMV DNA . Tissue samples from the identified infectious agents were related only to the spindle-cell histologic type AB of uveal melanoma. In plasma, genomes of pathogens were not determined. The results indicate the presence of infectious agents in patients with uveal melanoma and require further study of the pathogenetic role of infections in the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(6):284-287
pages 284-287 views

Index of articles published in 2016

Article E.
Problems of Virology. 2016;61(6):288-289
pages 288-289 views

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