Vol 62, No 1 (2017)


Phosphazide (nikavir) is a highly effective drug for the treatment of HIV/AIDS infection

Galegov G.A.


Federation Convincing evidence for high therapeutic activity and tolerability of Phosphazide in the treatment of HIV/AIDS-infection is given. Phosphazide is currently used in various regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy, as well as in the HIV therapy in patients with simultaneously acquired chronic hepatitis C or tuberculosis. Therapeutic possibilities of Phosphazide were clearly manifested in the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child. There is every reason to use Phosphazide in first-line antiretroviral therapy.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(1):5-11
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Influenza A virus in the Western Arctic

Grebennikova T.V., Syroeshkin A.V., Chichaeva M.A., Esper S.A., Lvov D.K.


Small bays of bird bazaars of the Arctic Kola Peninsula (Barents Sea) have been studied. RNA of influenza A virus was found in the surface microlayer (SM) and aerosol samples from the bays located beneath bird colonies. The nucleotide sequencing of the PCR fragments from the SM and the sea aerosol showed their identity for each bay. Virus transfer mechanism along the “surface microlayer - sea aerosol” path has been proposed. The kinetic scheme of the virus-host-environment interaction, which allows the dependence of the viral population size on the temperature to be simulated, has been developed.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(1):11-17
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A new method of producing NS5A antigen of hepatitis C virus

Kuznetsova T.V., Smirnova M.S., Leonovich O.A., Gordeichuk I.V., Biriukova I.K., Zylkova M.V., Tyn’O Y.Y., Belyakova A.V., Shevelev A.B.


A task of creating a universal platform for engineering affordable recombinant producers of viral proteins conserving immunogenicity has not been solved yet. High toxicity of the viral proteins for the host cells, low yield and abnormal folding of the products often present severe obstacles to obtaining producers of the viral proteins. In this work, we report a new method of engineering and screening of deletion libraries from the viral antigen genes. This method allows selection of artificial derivatives of these genes adapted for expression in microbial producer cells. The method involves PCR amplification of the gene fragments using a system of randomized and adapter primers, which allows the spontaneous formation of duplexes from the random primers in the absence of the template DNA to be prevented. For selecting variants capable of in vivo expression, the obtained PCR products are cloned to a special vector of a direct phenotypical selection pQL30. It contains E. coli β-galactosidase gene with an inserted polylinker producing a frame-shift mutation. Using this screening method, an artificial variant of hepatitis C (HCV) NS5a gene with optimal biotechnological properties was established. 27 clinical specimens of 1670 bp long HCV1b NS5a fragments were used as a source gene. A PCR bank of the deletion derivatives was produced. 40 LacZ-positive clones based on pQL30 vector with a 50-700 bp long insertion were selected. The LacZ activity of the cell lysates and the immunogenicity of the products were tested. As a result, a single clone encoding a soluble protein with Mr = 114 kDa was selected. Its yield reached 0.3% of the total cell protein. It was highly reactive with sera of HCV 1b infected patients but not with sera of the healthy donors.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(1):17-25
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An experience in the clinical use of specific immunoglobulin from horse blood serum for prophylaxis of Ebola haemorrhagic fever

Borisevich I.V., Chernikova N.K., Markov V.I., Krasnianskiy V.P., Borisevich S.V., Rozhdestvenskiy E.V.


The aim of this work was to estimate the efficacy and safety of single intramuscular introduction of specific heterologous immunoglobulin as prophylactic drug against Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Materials and methods. The specific heterologous immunoglobulin was introduced as a special prophylactic drug to 28 patients in epidemic situations, after skin hurt with infectious materials or contact with infectious blood. Clinico-laboratory observation was performed in 24 subjects after single intramuscular introduction of heterologous immunoglobulin Ebola. The samples of blood serum were investigated for immunoglobulin Ebola and antibodies to horse gamma-globulin on the 30th and 60th days after prophylaxis. Results. None of the subjects of the study contracted Ebola fever. There were no anaphylactic reactions after special prophylaxis with specific heterologous immunoglobulin. Among the subjects with normal allergic state 31% responded with local reactions; 13%, with a general reaction (mild case of the serum disease). Almost no reaction was observed in patients with unfavorable allergic state subjected to desensitizing therapy; in the absence of desensitizing therapy, 50% of patients with unfavorable allergic state exhibited local reactions; 17%, mild cases of the serum disease; 33%, moderate cases of the serum disease. In summary, if the tactics of immunoglobulin application was right, the quantity of local allergic reactions was 28%; of wide spread reactions, 6%. Weak serum disease was observed in 11% of the subjects. The prognostic period of resistance to Ebola fever was less than 30 days. Conclusion. The prophylactic use of specific immunoglobulin from horse blood serum against hemorrhagic Ebola fever is effective and relatively safe in patients subjected to desensitizing therapy.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(1):25-29
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Comparative analysis of genomes of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains isolated from mosquitoes and ticks

Pukhovskaya N.M., Morozova O.V., Belozerova N.B., Bakhmetyeva S.V., Vysochina N.P., Zdanovskaya N.I., Ivanov L.I.


The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strain Lazo MP36 was isolated from the pool of mosquitoes Aedes vexans collected in Lazo region of Khabarovsk territory in August 2014. Phylogenetic analysis of the strain Lazo MP36 complete genome (GenBank accession number KT001073) revealed its correspondence to the TBEV Far Eastern subtype and differences from the following strains: 1) from ticks Ixodes persulcatus P. Schulze, 1930 [vaccine strain 205 (JX498939) and strains Khekhtzir 1230 (KF880805), Chichagovka (KP844724), Birobidzhan 1354 (KF880805) isolated in 2012-2013]; 2) from mosquitoes [strain Malyshevo (KJ744034) isolated in 1978 from Aedes vexans nipponii in Khabarovsk territory; strain Sakhalin 6-11 isolated from the pool of mosquitoes in 2011 (KF826916)]; 3) from human brain [vaccine strain Sofjin (JN229223), Glubinnoe/2004(DQ862460). Kavalerovo (DQ862460), Svetlogorie (DQ862460)]. The fusion peptide necessary for flavivirus entry to cells of the three TBEV strains isolated from mosquitoes (Lazo MP36, Malyshevo and Sakhalin 6-11) has the canonical structure 98-DRGWGNHCGLFGKGSI-113 for the tick-borne flaviviruses. Amino acid transition H104G typical for the mosquito-borne flaviviruses was not found. Structures of 5’- and 3’-untranslated (UTR) regions of the TBEV strains from mosquitoes were 85-98% homologous to the TBEV strains of all subtypes without recombination with mosquito-borne flaviviruses found in the Far East of Russia. Secondary structures of 5’- and 3'-UTR as well as cyclization sequences (CS) of types a and B are highly homologous for all TBEV isolates independently of the biological hosts and vectors. similarity of the genomes of the TBEV isolates from mosquitoes, ticks and patients as well as pathogenicity of the isolates for new-borne laboratory mice and tissue cultures might suggest a possible role of mosquitoes in the TBEV circulation in natural foci as an accidental or additional virus carrier.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(1):30-35
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Development of the suppository form of human immunoglobulin preparation with high titers of antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 for the treatment of chronic forms of herpetic disease

Lazarenko A.A., Alimbarova L.M., Mordvintseva E.Y., Barinsky I.F.


In spite of the vast arsenal of therapeutic agents, therapy of herpes virus infection (HVI) is very difficult, particularly in pregnant women, newborns and children in the first years of life, as well as in patients with immune deficiency. In this regard, possibility of using immunoglobulins for the treatment of HVI is currently attracting the attention of doctors. The aim of this work was to develop a suppository form of the drug containing donor immunoglobulins with high levels of neutralizing antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 for the treatment of chronic forms of herpetic disease. The study included the following steps: 1) selection of gamma-globulins with high antibody titer for HSV-1 and HSV-2 ELISA test; 2) determination of the level of neutralizing antibodies in the selected series of gamma-globulins in tests in tissue cultures and animals; 3) lyophilization of immunoglobulins; 4) development of the suppository form of the preparation containing gamma-globulin donors with high levels of neutralizing antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2; 5) study of the safety of the activity of neutralizing antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2 in the suppository form of the drug with hyaluronic acid used as immunomodulator. As the result of this work, immunoglobulin preparation in the suppository form was developed. The developed preparation meets the requirements for safety and efficacy. It is not toxic or pyrogenic. The problems of clinical use of this drug as a method of HVI therapy are discussed.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(1):36-41
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A comparative analysis of virucidal efficiency of biocide agents

Nosik N.N., Nosik D.N., Chizhov A.I.


The main groups of biocide agents used for inactivation of bacteria and viruses were studied for their virucidal activity against enveloped (HIV, viral hepatitis C, influenza virus A) and non-enveloped viruses (poliovirus, adenovirus). Their efficiency was analyzed. Quarterly ammonium compounds (QAC) themselves are not able to properly inactivate non-enveloped viruses. However, they can be successfully applied in combination with other biocides (guanidines, aldehydes). Effective composition of QAC with amines and guanidines provided inactivation of viruses (4.0 lgTCID50) in concentrations of 0.166-0.280% for non-enveloped viruses and 0.080-00.185% for enveloped viruses. The combination of QAC with aldehydes is especially effective (0.04-0.64% for non-enveloped viruses). The virucidal efficiency does not directly depend on the QAC concentration in the chemical disinfectants.
Problems of Virology. 2017;62(1):41-45
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90th Anniversary of Professor T.I. Tikhonenko



Problems of Virology. 2017;62(1):47-47
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In memory of S.M. Klimenko



Problems of Virology. 2017;62(1):48-48
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In memory of S.G. Drozdov



Problems of Virology. 2017;62(1):49-49
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