Anti-rabies vaccines applied in the Russian Federation and perspectives for their improvement

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Rabies is almost ubiquitous (except in certain areas) and poses a significant danger to both animals and humans. Every year around 55,000 people die from this disease worldwide. In the Russian Federation alone 400,000– 

450,000 patients annually apply for anti-rabies treatment. In the absolute majority of cases human infection is caused by contact with infected animals. In RF, a number of cultured inactivated anti-rabies vaccines for medical and veterinary purposes have been developed, registered and used for specific prevention of rabies. These vaccine preparations have shown high effectiveness in preventing infection in domestic and farm animals. At the same time, the main reservoir of the rabies virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae: Lyssavirus) (RV) are wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora). For the purpose of their oral immunization, live virus vaccines from attenuated (fixed) strains of RV that are little resistant in the external environment are used. In Western Europe and North America there is successful experience with recombinant anti-rabies vaccine preparations containing a viral glycoprotein gene (G-protein). Such vaccines are safe for humans and animals. In Russia also had been developed a vector anti-rabies vaccine based on adenovirus (Adenoviridae), which can be used to combat this infection. Currently, in addition to classical rabies, diseases caused by new, previously unknown lyssaviruses (Lyssavirus) are becoming increasingly important. Bats (Mammalia: Microchiroptera) are their vectors. Cases of illness and death after contact with these animals have been described. In the near future, we should expect the development of new vaccines that will provide protection not only against RV, but also against other lyssaviruses.

About the authors

A. L. Elakov

FSBSI «Federal Scientific Center – All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine named
after K.I. Skryabin and Ya.R. Kovalenko of the Russian Academy of Sciences»

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5798-6518

Alexandr L. Elakov (A. L. Elakov ), Ph.D., senior researcher at the Laboratory of Molecular diagnostics

109428, Moscow

Russian Federation


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